Events in Science

French retired naval officer Félix du Temple builds the Monoplane, a 40-foot wingspan craft that was the first aircraft to ever achieve flight, 29 years before the Wright Brothers. Thomas Parker, an English inventor, builds the first electric car, powered by rechargeable batteries that Parker designed himself. Hungarian engineer Ottó Bláthy invents the transformer, essential for the utilization, distribution, and transmission of electrical energy.

Events in Science

John Dalton proposes that all substances are made up of atoms, which cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. Steam engines are now so powerful that they can provide 10,000 horsepower. Bertha Benz undertakes the first road trip by motorized car, designed by her husband Karl Benz. Nikola Tesla invents the Tesla Coil, which can transmit electrical energy without wires.

Events in Science

Albert Einstein proposes the laws of special and general relativity that present space and time as a single unit and suggest it can be bent, allowing for travel along its curvature. The Manhattan Project builds the atomic bomb. The first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction is produced at The University of Chicago. American mathematician Stanislaw Ulam proposes a new way to propel a spacecraft by exploding a series of atomic bombs behind it, a force known as nuclear pulse propulsion.

Events in Science

The Manhattan Project, a U.S. led attempt to build an atomic bomb, begins. The first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction is produced under the grandstands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. The “Grandfather Paradox”—that time travel could erase the traveller’s future—is described by René Barjavel in the novel Le Voyageur Imprudent. Atom bombs are dropped on two cities in Japan. The first non-military nuclear power plant, Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, opens in Russia. The Vietnam War begins, leading to the diagnosis of “post-Vietnam Syndrome” which was altered to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1970s. Russian physicist Igor Dmitrievich Novikov develops the Novikov Self-Consistency Principle, which says that a time traveler cannot alter past events in any way.

Events in Science

Edwin Hubble discovers a star called V1, proving the existence of a galaxy outside of our own for the first time (the Andromeda Galaxy). Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen realize that general relativity allows for bridges connecting different distant points of spacetime, known as Einstein-Rosen Bridges, which are now called wormholes. Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discover nuclear fission. The U.S. Navy launches the first nuclear submarine. Hugh Everett III publishes his relative state of quantum mechanics theory, which is popularly interpreted as a demonstration that our universe is one of many. Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space, completing an orbit of the Earth.

Events in Science

The study of modern string theory was started by Gabriele Veneziano in a paper on the dual resonance model between strong interactions. Joel Scherk and John Schwarz propose string theory as a theory of quantum gravity, opening the door to further research into whether or not gravity, the force directly affecting the curvature of spacetime, is fundamental. Kip Thorne and Michael Morris characterize traversable wormholes for the first time.

Events in Science

The prediction that electrons can travel through solids, known as quantum tunneling, wins the Nobel Prize for Physics. India successfully tests its first atomic weapon.

Events in Science

Richard Feynman described the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles. Kurt Gödel proposes the existence of a closed time-like curve, or closed time loop, an effect that allows an object to travel through spacetime and loop back to where it began. Russian physicist Igor Dmitrievich Novikov develops the Novikov Self-Consistency Principle, which says that a time traveler cannot alter past events in any way. New Zealand physicist Matt Visser publishes Artificial Black Holes, detailing the attempt to create black holes artificially in a laboratory for study by using analogue modeling techniques.
1895
The Time Machine
by H.G. Wells

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